A. Natural Disasters
Natural disasters are disasters caused by natural phenomena. Actually, a natural phenomenon is a symptom of a very natural and common in the earth. However, only when the natural phenomenon hit man (soul) and all product cultivation (ownership, property and objects), we can only call it a disaster.
Classification based on the cause of natural disasters can be divided into three types, namely:
1. Natural disasters geological
This natural disaster caused by forces originating from inside the Earth (endogenous force). Were included in the geological natural disasters are earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis.
2. Natural disasters climatological
Natural disasters are natural disasters climatological factors caused by wind and rain. Examples of climatological natural disaster is a flood, hurricane, flood, tornado, drought, and natural forest fires (not by man).
Ground movement (landslides) as well as natural disasters, although the main trigger of climatological factors (rain), but symptoms initially on geological conditions (type and characteristics of the soil and rocks, and so on).
3. Natural disasters extra-terrestrial
Extra-Terrestrial natural disasters are natural disasters that occur in space, for example: lacing / meteor impact. When blow-sky objects on the earth’s surface it will cause natural disasters are devastating for the inhabitants of the earth.
Natural phenomena that can cause natural disasters basically have a common characteristic, namely early symptoms, major symptoms, and the symptoms end. Thus, if we can accurately know the early symptoms of a natural disaster, we are likely to reduce the consequences thereof.
B. Anticipation of Disaster
1. Volcanic eruptions
Volcanic eruptions occur because of symptoms of volcanism. ie events associated with magma rising from deep within the earth.
Before the volcano erupted, there are usually signs as follows:
temperatures around the crater rises
many water sources have dried up
often feel the earthquake (volcanic)
animals on top of the mountain is much to move down the slope because it feels the heat
often the sound of thunder from the mountain
If there are signs of a volcano will erupt, there is some anticipation (effort) to reduce the danger of the disaster, among others:
create tunnels water in the crater (crater) that had the lake.
disseminate information and provide early warning of the results of observation posts monitoring the volcano.
evacuated residents who live on the slopes of a volcano that will erupt.
Earthquakes are a symptom of energy release in the form of a wave that propagates into the earth’s surface due to a disturbance in the earth’s crust (broken, collapsed, or destroyed).
Earthquakes are frequent natural disasters struck Indonesia, approximately 400 times a year. This happens because Indonesia is traversed by two plates (belt) earthquake, the Mediterranean plate (Alps-Himalayas) and the Pacific plate.
Until now they have not been able to predict when an earthquake will occur. The size of the calamity is highly dependent on the strength (magnitude) earthquake itself and the condition of areas affected by the earthquake. Earthquake measuring device called a seismograph, which is expressed in the Richter scale.
Anticipation should be done for the wider community is what and how to deal with earthquakes, during and after the earthquake struck. Some suggestions in the face of seismic events is as follows:
Before the earthquake
Knowing carefully walks out in emergencies wherever we are. Remember the earthquake can happen at any time.
Putting a heavy goods in a stable place and not dependent.
Turn off the lights immediately, stove oil or gas and electricity in order to avoid fire hazards.
When an earthquake happens
If you are indoors: be quiet for a moment, do not panic and flee out of the building. Immediately seek shelter under the table or near the door. Stay away from places that may lead to injuries such as glass, gas pipes or objects that might fall depending override.
If outside the home: live or find a place that is free from buildings, trees or walls. Do not enter the building despite the tremors had stopped because it is not impossible to collapse the building can still occur.
If in the crowd: do not participate jostling to find a way out, even though the people frantically have the same desire. Look for a place that will not be the downfall of debris.
If you are in a tall building: immediately seek shelter under a desk and stay away from windows or outside walls of the building. Stay on the floor where you are when the earthquake happened, and do not use elevators or lift existing.
If you are driving a vehicle: stop your vehicle and stay in the car and your car aside. Do not stop on the bridge, or under overpasses. If the earthquake had stopped, it must not be crossed overpasses or bridges that stretch, before certain conditions are safe.
After an earthquake
Keep using footwear to avoid shards of glass or materials that damage the foot.
Check if you get a wound that requires immediate treatment.
Check the flow / gas pipeline that there is a leak. If the smell of gas try to immediately shut down the source and do not ever lit a fire and smoke.
Check for damage that may occur to your building.
Listen to information through television, radio, telephone which is usually broadcast by the government, if it is possible.
Be prepared to face the possibility of aftershocks. And pray to avoid the disaster worse.
Tsunamis are large waves that occur after the earthquake, strong earthquakes, volcanoes erupt, or a meteor hit the sea.
The tsunami can be predicted by different seismological institutions in various parts of the world and the tsunami can be monitored via satellite. With the implementation of an early warning system (early warning system), it is expected that people can evacuate quickly when the tsunami.
Some steps in anticipation of the tsunami:
a. If you’re on the edge of the sea or near the river, ran a vengeance to a higher place. If possible, ran towards the nearby hill.
b. If the situation allows, go to a predetermined evacuation.
c. If the situation does not allow it to perform actions 2, look-rise buildings are steel reinforced (Ferroconcrete building), use the emergency stairs to get to the top floor (at least up to the 3rd floor).
d. If the situation allows, wear a rain jacket and make sure your hands are free and do not bring anything.
The storm is a disturbance in a planet’s atmosphere, especially affecting its surface and shows bad weather. Hurricanes can be characterized by a strong wind (wind storm), thunder and lightning (thunder storms), torrential outpouring eg ice (ice storm), or wind that carries a substance through the atmosphere (such as sandstorms, snowstorms, etc.).
Hurricanes can cause the collapse of the building, sinking ships and uprooting trees, electric poles, towers and so forth.
Some kind of storm that you need to know, including:
Tornadoes are storms strong winds with a speed of 300-500 km / h so that it can destroy objects in its path, both on land and at sea. Tornado characterized as dark funnel cloud forming spiral movement, relying on a cumulonimbus cloud.
b. Tropical storms (tropical cyclones)
Tropical cyclone is a circular storm causing strong winds capable of damaging the area about 250 miles from its center. Tropical cyclones cause damage primarily by strong winds, storm surges and heavy rains. The storm surge is a rise in sea level along the coast as quickly as the wind moved him to the beach.
The term tropical cyclone depends on the scene. In the Atlantic and Pacific are called hurricanes, in the Western Pacific are called typhoons, in Australia called Willy. Each year brings 80-100 tropical cyclones, tropical cyclone names generally use maiden names, such as: Anna, Carol, Debbie, Inez, Fiona, Wenda, and so on.
Thunderstorm is a rain storm accompanied by lightning and thunder. This incident is typical in the tropics in the transition season, especially in the dry season transitional period of the rainy season.
Thunderstorms is an atmospheric physical phenomena that often occur in Indonesia. This phenomenon can cause loss of life due to electric shock at the time of the lightning. Symptoms of Thunderstorm are strong winds accompanied by heavy rain sometimes accompanied by hail, lightning and thunder.
Natural disasters storms can be studied and observed that if the initial symptoms can be observed with both the main symptoms can be anticipated and is therefore a question of when, where, how much and how long it can be answered. It is able to reduce the number of victims of the disaster.
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The heavy rain occurs continuously result in a river can no longer hold water in large amounts. The river water will then overflowed and formed a puddle called the flood.
The river water can be overflowed because water catchment areas has been reduced. The overflow of river water may occur as a result of the blockage of the flow of the river.
Blockage of the river occurred due to human actions. Disposal of garbage into the river will cause the river flow is not smooth. The amount of material in the river sediment also can impede the flow of the river.
The flood disaster caused by poor weather systems. The main meteorological factors that caused catastrophic flooding is rain, rain and duration of rainfall distribution. Another important factor is the physical properties of the soil surface. Tropical cyclones can affect weather systems in Indonesia, especially the increase in the number of clouds, precipitation, wind, and waves.
The cause of the flood is due to human activities is deforestation. Forest bare caused the ground can not absorb and hold water when it rains continuously, consequently flowing water eroded the soil that can cause landslides.
Many areas in Indonesia, the land has poor water absorption power, or the amount of rainfall exceeds the soil’s ability to absorb water. When it rains, which sometimes floods occur suddenly called flood.
To anticipate flood many things to do, including:
a. cleaning drains of debris that could clog the flow of water, causing flooding.
b. dredge rivers of deposits to increase the capacity of water.
c. build these alternative drainage routes (new river channels, pipe systems) so as to prevent excessive strain on the river.
d. not erect buildings in the area is a region where water absorption.
e. not to cut trees in the forest, because the forest bare would be difficult to absorb water, so if it happens continuously heavy rain water can not be absorbed directly by the soil will even erode the soil, it can also cause landslides.
f. create retaining walls and embankments along rivers, sea walls along the beaches can keep the water level so as not to get into the mainland.
The distinction between these drought (drought) and dry conditions (aridity). Drought is the gap between water provided by the water required, while ariditas (dry conditions) is defined as the state of the amount of rainfall is minimal.
Drought (dry) can arise due to natural phenomena that occur on earth. Drought occurs because of the change of seasons. The change of seasons is the impact of climate. Change of seasons are distinguished by the amount of rainfall. Knowledge of useful season for farmers to determine the time of planting and harvesting of crops.
In the dry season, the river will suffer from drought. At the time of drought, rivers and reservoirs can not function properly. As a result, the fields that use of rainwater irrigation systems are also experiencing drought. Dry rice fields can not produce crops. In addition, the supply of clean water is also reduced. Water needed daily becoming scarce keberadaannya.Kekeringan in a region is a condition that generally upsets the balance of living beings.
Drought conditions can be evaluated from various aspects, including:
a. Meteorological drought
b. Agricultural drought
c. Hydrological drought
d. Drought socio – economic
Some ways to anticipate drought, among others:
a. made reservoirs (dams) which serves as a water supply in the dry season. Besides the reservoir to prevent flooding during the rainy season,
b. make artificial rain to areas that are very dry,
c. reforestation or reforestation of areas already deforested land in order to more easily absorb water in the rainy season and as a backup storage of water in the dry season,
diversify farming for the farmers, for example, replace the rice plants with crops during the dry season for crops can be harvested quickly and does not need much water to grow.